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image of How to type Umlaut letters (ä, ü, ï, ö, ë, ÿ) - How to ...

How to type Umlaut letters (ä, ü, ï, ö, ë, ÿ) - How to ...

Turn on you Num Lock. Press and hold the Alt key on your keyboard. Whilst still holding on to the Alt key, press the umlaut alt code and release the alt key. For example, to type umlaut o, press and hold the key and press 0250 on the numeric keypad. The alt codes of the umlaut letters are list in the table above.Umlaut, also known as diaeresis, are two marks that consist of two dots ( ¨ ) placed over a letter, usually a vowel, to indicate a different vowel quality..
From: howtotypeanything.com

Umlaut, also known as diaeresis, are two marks that consist of two dots ( ¨ ) placed over a letter, usually a vowel, to indicate a different vowel quality.

In this tutorial, you’ll learn how to type Umlaut in Windows or Mac. You’ll also learn all the available options to insert any Umlaut letter in Word, Excel or PowerPoint.

Without any further ado, let’s get started.

How to type Umlaut in Windows (using Alt Code)

One of the simplest ways to type the Umlaut letters in Word is to use the alt code method.

This method is for Windows users only. It also requires that your keyboard should have the numeric keypad. If it doesn’t look like you, please explore the other options. Otherwise, let’s get started.

To type Umlaut letters in Windows (umlaut o for example), press and hold the Alt key on your keyboard whilst you type the character’s alt code on the numeric keypad. The alt code for Umlaut o is 0246.

The alt codes of all the umlaut letters are listed in the table below. Use these alt codes if you want to type any of the underlisted umlaut letters on Windows.

Below is a step by step guide:

These are the steps to type the Umlaut letters in Windows using the symbol’s alt code.

The hard part of this method is that you have to learn the alt code for each umlaut letter you want to type. That’s a lot of numbers to remember. If you happen to type these umlaut letters often, then you may want to create a cheat sheet for quick reference.

How to type Umlaut on Mac (using shortcut)

Typing umlaut letters on Mac is very easy with the keyboard shortcut. All you have to do is press the Option+U, then type the letter. The umlaut version of that letter or vowel will be created.

Obey the following steps to type any letter with the umlaut accent mark on top of it:

For example, to type u (umlaut u) on Mac, press [OPTION] + [u] as the first step. then without pressing any other key or pressing the mouse, type the letter u. The umlaut u vowel should be inserted into your document. The same technique can be used to type a, i, o, e and y.

The table below contains all umlaut accented letters as well as the keyboard shortcut on Mac for each one of them:

2 ways Type Umlaut on Word (Windows Only)

If you are using a Windows PC, there are several methods available for you to type any umlaut letter in Microsoft Word.

In this section, we’ll talk about two simple methods you can use to type any letter with the umlaut mark in Microsoft Word.

NOTE: Using the Alt code method as discussed in the beginning section, you can type any Umlaut letter or character anywhere including Word, Excel or PowerPoint.

Without any further ado, let’s get started.

Method 1: Umlaut Shortcut for Word

The Umlaut shortcut for Word is [Ctrl]+[Shift]+[;], then the letter.

NOTE: This shortcut works only in Microsoft Word and Outlook. If you want to type umlaut in other apps like Excel or in your browser, refer to the other methods in this article.

To type any umlaut letter in Word using the keyboard, first of all, simultaneously press Ctrl + Shift + ;. After pressing these keys, and without pressing any other key, type the vowel or letter. This will type an umlaut version of the vowel typed.

The table below contains all the umlaut letters and how to type each one of them

NOTE: The table above illustrates only lowercase umlaut letters. However, using the same shortcut, you can type uppercase umlaut letters by turning on the caps lock.

These is how you may use the keyboard shortcut to type all the umlaut letters in Microsoft Word.

Option two: Using the Insert symbol dialog

Using the Insert symbol dialog box, you can insert any umlaut character in Word.

Just obey the following instructions:

These are steps to use symbol’s dialog box to insert any umlaut letter into your Word document.

How to type Umlaut in Excel

Using the alt code method discussed in the beginning section of this guide, you can quickly type any umlaut letter into Microsoft Excel.

However, if you want to explore more options for this task, obey the instructions below.

These are the steps you may use to insert the umlaut letters into your Excel worksheets.


As you have noticed, there are several different methods to type the umlaut letters for both Windows and Mac.

On Windows, using the Umlaut alt codes work everywhere including Microsoft Word, Excel, PowerPoint, Outlook, and even on browsers. But options like the shortcut that works only in Microsoft Word.

Please use the comments section below if you have anything to say about these umlauts letters and how to insert them into your PC.

image of Diaeresis (diacritic) - Wikipedia

Diaeresis (diacritic) - Wikipedia

The diaeresis (/ d aɪ ˈ ɛr ə s ɪ s,-ˈ ɪər-/ dy-ERR-ə-sis, -⁠ EER-; also known as the trema) and the umlaut (/ ˈ ʊ m l aʊ t /) are two different diacritical marks that (in modern usage) look alike. They both consist of two dots ¨ placed over a letter, usually a vowel; when that letter is an i or a j, the diacritic replaces the tittle: ï. In computer systems, both forms have the ....
From: en.wikipedia.org

Diacritic that consists of two dots placed over a letter

The diaeresis[a] ( dy-ERR-ə-sis, -⁠EER-;[1] also known as the trema) and the umlaut () are two different diacritical marks that (in modern usage) look alike. They both consist of two dots ¨ placed over a letter, usually a vowel; when that letter is an i or a j, the diacritic replaces the tittle: i.[2] In computer systems, both forms have the same code point (binary code). Their appearance in print or on screen may vary between typefaces but rarely within the same typeface.

The "diaeresis" and the "umlaut" are diacritics marking two distinct phonological phenomena.

These two diacritics have different origins, the diaeresis being considerably older. Nevertheless, in modern computer systems using Unicode, the umlaut and diaeresis diacritics are encoded identically. For example, U+00E4 a LATIN SMALL LETTER A WITH DIAERESIS represents both a-umlaut and a-diaeresis. (This is similar to using Unicode's hyphen-minus code point to represent both a hyphen and a minus sign). Technically, the 'diacritic above' form can be combined with any other character, by encoding it as U+0308 ◌̈ COMBINING DIAERESIS; the same is true of the 'diacritic below' form, using U+0324 ◌̤ COMBINING DIAERESIS BELOW.

The same mark, placed above or below the letter, is used in other contexts and for different purposes and meanings. For example, in Albanian, e represents a schwa.


The word 'diaeresis' is from Greek diairesis (διαίρεσις), meaning 'division', 'separation', or 'distinction'.[3]

The word 'trema' (French: trema), used in linguistics and also classical scholarship, is from the Greek trêma (τρῆμα) and means a 'perforation', 'orifice', or 'pip' (as on dice),[4] thus describing the form of the diacritic rather than its function.

German: Umlaut is the German name of both the sound rule also known as i-mutation and the corresponding diacritic.


The diaeresis diacritic indicates that two adjoining letters that would normally form a digraph and be pronounced as one sound, are instead to be read as separate vowels in two syllables. For example, in the spelling 'cooperate', the diaeresis reminds the reader that the word has four syllables co-op-er-ate, not three, '*coop-er-ate'. In British English this usage has been considered obsolete for many years, and in US English, although it persisted for longer, it is now considered archaic as well.[5] Nevertheless, it is still used by the US magazine The New Yorker.[6] In English language texts it is perhaps most familiar in the spellings 'naive', 'Noel', and 'Chloe', and is also used officially in the name of the island Tean. Languages such as Dutch, Afrikaans, Catalan, French, Galician and Spanish make regular use of the diaeresis.


In Greek, two dots, called a 'trema', were used in the Hellenistic period on the letters ι and υ, most often at the beginning of a word, as in ϊδων, ϋιος, and ϋβριν, to separate them from a preceding vowel, as writing was scriptio continua, where spacing was not yet used as a word divider.[b] However, it was also used to indicate that a vowel formed its own syllable (in phonological hiatus), as in ηϋ and Αϊδι.[7][8]

The diaeresis was borrowed for this purpose in several languages of western and southern Europe, among them Occitan, Catalan, French, Dutch, Welsh, and (rarely) English. As a further extension, some languages began to use a diaeresis whenever a vowel letter was to be pronounced separately. This included vowels that would otherwise form digraphs with consonants or simply be silent. For example, in the orthographies of Spanish, Catalan, French, Galician, Occitan and Guarani, the graphemes gu and qu normally represent a single sound, [ɡ] or [k], before the front vowels e and i (or before nearly all vowels in Occitan). In the few exceptions where the u is pronounced, a diaeresis is added to it.


This has been extended to Ganda, where a diaeresis separates y from n: anya [aɲa], anya [aɲja].

'Y' is sometimes used in transcribed Greek, where it represents the Greek letter υ (upsilon) in hiatus with α. For example, it can be seen in the transcription Artayctes of the Persian name Ἀρταΰκτης (Artauktes) at the very end of Herodotus, or the name of Mount Taygetus on the southern Peloponnesus peninsula, which in modern Greek is spelled Ταΰγετος.

Modern usage[edit]

In Modern Greek, αϊ and οϊ represent the diphthongs /ai̯/ and /oi̯/, and εϊ the disyllabic sequence /e.i/, whereas αι, οι, and ει transcribe the simple vowels /e/, /i/, and /i/. The diacritic can be the only one on a vowel, as in ακαδημαϊκός (akadimaikos, 'academic'), or in combination with an acute accent, as in πρωτεΐνη (proteini, 'protein').

In Catalan, the digraphs ai, ei, oi, au, eu, and iu are normally read as diphthongs. To indicate exceptions to this rule (hiatus), a diaeresis mark is placed on the second vowel: without this the words raim [rəˈim] ("grape") and diurn [diˈurn] ("diurnal") would be read *[ˈrajm] and *[ˈdiwrn], respectively. The Occitan use of diaeresis is very similar to that of Catalan: ai, ei, oi, au, eu, ou are diphthongs consisting of one syllable but ai, ei, oi, au, eu, ou are groups consisting of two distinct syllables.

Before the 1990 Orthographic Agreement, a diaeresis ("trema") was used in (mainly Brazilian) Portuguese used in combinations gue/que and gui/qui, in words like sanguineo [sɐ̃ˈɡwiniu] “sanguineous”. After the implementation of the Orthographic Agreement, it was abolished altogether from all Portuguese words.

In French, some diphthongs that were written with pairs of vowel letters were later reduced to monophthongs, which led to an extension of the value of this diacritic. It often now indicates that the second vowel letter is to be pronounced separately from the first, rather than merge with it into a single sound. For example, the French words mais [ma.is] and naive [na.iv] would be pronounced *[mɛ] and *[nɛv], respectively, without the diaeresis mark, since the digraph ai is pronounced [ɛ].[c] The English spelling of 'Noel' meaning "Christmas" (French: Noel [nɔ.ɛl]) comes from this use. Y occurs in French as a variant of i in a few proper nouns, as in the name of the Parisian suburb of L'Hay-les-Roses [la.i le ʁoz] and in the surname of the house of Croy [kʁu.i]. In some names, a diaeresis is used to indicate two vowels historically in hiatus, although the second vowel has since fallen silent, as in Saint-Saens [sɛ̃sãs] and de Stael [də stal].

The diaeresis is also used in French when a silent e is added to the sequence gu, to show that it is to be pronounced [ɡy] rather than as a digraph for [ɡ]. For example, when the feminine ‑e is added to aigu [eɡy] "sharp", the pronunciation does not change in most accents:[d] aigue [eɡy] as opposed to the city name Aigues-Mortes [ɛɡ mɔʁt]. Similar is the feminine noun cigue [siɡy] "hemlock"; compare figue [fiɡ] "fig". In the ongoing French spelling reform of 1990, this was moved to the u (aigue, cigue). (In canoe [kanɔ.e] the e is not silent, and so is not affected by the spelling reform.)

In Welsh, where the diaeresis appears, it is usually on the stressed vowel, and this is most often on the first of the two adjacent vowels; typical examples are copio [kɔ.ˈpi.ɔ] (to copy) and mopio [ˈmɔ.pjɔ] (to mop). It is also used on the first of two vowels that would otherwise form a diphthong (creir [ˈkreː.ɪr] ('created') rather than creir [ˈkrəi̯r] ('believed')) and on the first of three vowels to separate it from a following diphthong: crewyd is pronounced [ˈkreː.ʊi̯d] rather than [ˈkrɛu̯.ɨd].

In Dutch, spellings such as coefficient are necessary because the digraphs oe and ie normally represent the simple vowels [u] and [i], respectively. However, hyphenation is now preferred for compound words so that zeeeend (sea duck) is now spelled zee-eend.[9]

In German, alongside the pervasive use of umlaut diacritics with vowels, diaeresis above e occurs in a few proper names, such as Ferdinand Piech and Bernhard Hoecker.

In Galician, diaeresis is employed to indicate hiatus in the first and second persons of the plural of the imperfect tense of verbs ended in -aer, -oer, -air and -oir (saiamos, caiades). This stems from the fact that an unstressed -i- is left between vowels, but constituting its own syllable, which would end with a form identical in writing but different in pronunciation with those of the Present subjunctive (saiamos, caiades), as those have said i forming a diphthong with the following a.

In Modern English, the diaeresis, the grave accent and the acute accent are the only diacritics used apart from loanwords. It may be used optionally for words that do not have a morphological break at the diaeresis point, such as 'naive', 'Bootes', and 'Noel'. It is far less commonly used in words such as 'cooperate' and 'reenter' except in a very few publications – notably The New Yorker[10][11][6] and MIT Technology Review under Jason Pontin – and this usage is considered by prescriptive writing guides to be largely archaic.[12][13] The diaeresis mark is sometimes used in English personal first and last names to indicate that two adjacent vowels should be pronounced separately, rather than as a diphthong. Examples include the given names 'Chloe' and 'Zoe', which otherwise might be pronounced with a silent e. To discourage a similar mispronunciation, the mark is also used in the surname 'Bronte'.


Germanic umlaut is a specific historical phenomenon of vowel-fronting in German and other Germanic languages.[e] In German it causes back vowels [a]. [aː], [ɔ], [oː], [ʊ], [uː] and diphthong [aʊ] to shift forward in the mouth to [ɛ], [ɛː] (or, for many speakers, [eː], resulting in a merger with /eː/), [oe], [oː], [ʏ], [yː] and [ɔʏ], respectively. In modern German orthography, the affected graphemes ⟨a⟩, ⟨o⟩, ⟨u⟩ and ⟨au⟩ are written as ⟨a⟩, ⟨o⟩, ⟨u⟩ and ⟨au⟩ i.e. they are written with the diacritical mark "umlaut", which looks identical to the diaeresis mark.


German phonological umlaut was present in the Old High German period and continued to develop in Middle High German. From the Middle High German period, it was sometimes denoted in written German by adding an e to the affected vowel, either after the vowel or, in small form, above it. This can still be seen in some names, e.g. Goethe, Goebbels, Staedtler.[f] In medieval German manuscripts, other digraphs were also commonly written using superscripts. In bluome ('flower'), for example, the ⟨o⟩ was frequently placed above the ⟨u⟩ (blume). This letter survives now only in Czech. Compare also ⟨n⟩ for the digraph nn, with the tilde as a superscript ⟨n⟩.

In blackletter handwriting as used in German manuscripts of the later Middle Ages, and also in many printed texts of the early modern period, the superscript ⟨e⟩ still had a form that would be recognisable as an ⟨e⟩, but in manuscript writing, umlauted vowels could be indicated by two dots since the late medieval period.

In the forms of handwriting that emerged in the early modern period (of which Sutterlin is the latest and best-known example) the letter ⟨e⟩ was composed of two short vertical lines very close together, and the superscript ⟨e⟩ looked like two tiny strokes. Even from the 16th century, the handwritten convention of indicating umlaut by two dots placed above the affected vowel is also found in printed texts.

Unusual umlaut designs are sometimes also created for graphic design purposes, such as to fit an umlaut into tightly spaced lines of text.[14] This may include umlauts placed vertically or inside the body of the letter.[15][16][17]

Printing conventions in German[edit]

When typing German, if umlaut letters are not available, it is usual to replace them with the underlying vowel followed by an ⟨e⟩. So, for example, "Schroder" becomes "Schroeder". As the pronunciation differs greatly between the normal letter and the umlaut, simply omitting the dots is incorrect. The result might often be a different word, as in schon 'already', schon 'beautiful'; or a different grammatic form, e.g. Mutter 'mother', Mutter 'mothers'.

Despite this, the umlauted letters are not considered as separate letters of the alphabet proper in German, in contrast to other Germanic languages.

When alphabetically sorting German words, the umlaut is usually not distinguished from the underlying vowel, although if two words differ only by an umlaut, the umlauted one comes second, for example:

There is a second system in limited use, mostly for sorting names (colloquially called "telephone directory sorting")[citation needed], which treats u like ue, and so on.

Austrian telephone directories insert o after oz.

In Switzerland, capital umlauts are sometimes printed as digraphs, in other words, ⟨Ae⟩, ⟨Oe⟩, ⟨Ue⟩, instead of ⟨A⟩, ⟨O⟩, ⟨U⟩ (see German alphabet for an elaboration.) This is because the Swiss typewriter keyboard contains the French accents on the same keys as the umlauts (selected by Shift). To write capital umlauts the ¨-key (a dead key) is pressed followed by the capital letter to which the umlaut should apply.

Borrowing of German umlaut notation[edit]

Some languages have borrowed some of the forms of the German letters A, O, or U, including Azerbaijani, Estonian, Finnish, Hungarian, Karelian, some of the Sami languages, Slovak, Swedish, and Turkish. This indicates sounds similar to the corresponding umlauted letters in German. In spoken Scandinavian languages the grammatical umlaut change is used (singular to plural, derivations etc.) but the character used differs between languages. In Finnish, a/a and o/o change systematically in suffixes according to the rules of vowel harmony. In Hungarian, where long vowels are indicated with an acute accent, the umlaut notation has been expanded with a version of the umlaut which looks like double acute accents, indicating a blend of umlaut and acute. Contrast: short o; long o. The Estonian alphabet has borrowed ⟨a⟩, ⟨o⟩, and ⟨u⟩ from German; Swedish and Finnish have ⟨a⟩ and ⟨o⟩; and Slovak has ⟨a⟩. In Estonian, Swedish, Finnish, and Sami ⟨a⟩ and ⟨o⟩ denote [ae] and [o], respectively. Hungarian has ⟨o⟩ and ⟨u⟩. Slovak uses the letter ⟨a⟩ to denote [e] (or a bit archaic but still correct [ɛɐ]). The sign is called dve bodky [ˈdʋe ˈbɔtki] ("two dots"), and the full name of the letter a is a s dvomi bodkami [ˈa z ˈdʋɔmi ˈbɔtkami] ("a with two dots"). The similar word dvojbodka [ˈdʋɔjbɔtka] ("double dot") however refers to the colon.

In these languages, with the exception of Hungarian, the replacement rule for situations where the umlaut character is not available, is to simply use the underlying unaccented character instead. Hungarian follows the German rules and replaces ⟨o⟩ and ⟨u⟩ with ⟨oe⟩ and ⟨ue⟩ respectively[citation needed] – at least for telegrams and telex messages. The same rule is followed for the near-lookalikes ⟨o⟩ and ⟨u⟩.

In Luxembourgish (Letzebuergesch), ⟨a⟩ and ⟨e⟩ represent stressed [ae] and [ə] (schwa) respectively. The letters ⟨u⟩ and ⟨o⟩ do not occur in native Luxembourgish words, but at least the former is common in words borrowed from standard German.

When Turkish switched from the Arabic to the Latin alphabet in 1928, it adopted a number of diacritics borrowed from various languages, including ⟨u⟩ and ⟨o⟩ from German (probably reinforced by their use in languages like Swedish, Hungarian, etc.). These Turkish graphemes represent sounds similar to their respective values in German (see Turkish alphabet).

As the borrowed diacritic has lost its relationship to Germanic i-mutation, they are in some languages considered independent graphemes, and cannot be replaced with ⟨ae⟩, ⟨oe⟩, or ⟨ue⟩ as in German. In Estonian and Finnish, for example, these latter diphthongs have independent meanings. Even some Germanic languages, such as Swedish (which does have a transformation analogous to the German umlaut, called omljud), treat them always as independent letters. In collation, this means they have their own positions in the alphabet, for example at the end ("A–O" or "A–U", not "A–Z") as in Swedish, Estonian and Finnish, which means that the dictionary order is different from German. The transformations a → ae and o → oe can, therefore, be considered less appropriate for these languages, although Swedish and Finnish passports use the transformation to render o and a (and a as aa) in the machine-readable zone. In contexts of technological limitation, e.g. in English based systems, Swedes can either be forced to omit the diacritics or use the two letter system.

When typing in Norwegian, the letters AE and O might be replaced with A and O respectively if the former are not available. If a is not available either, it is appropriate to use ae. The same goes for o and oe. While ae has a great resemblance to the letter ae and, therefore, does not impede legibility, the digraph oe is likely to reduce the legibility of a Norwegian text. This especially applies to the digraph oy, which would be rendered in the more cryptic form oey. Also in Danish, O has been used in place of O in some older texts and to distinguish between open and closed o-sounds and when confusion with other symbols could occur, e.g. on maps. The Danish/Norwegian O is like the German O a development of OE, to be compared with the French OE.

Early Volapuk used Fraktur a, o and u as different from Antiqua ones. Later, the Fraktur forms were replaced with umlauted vowels.

The usage of umlaut-like diacritic vowels, particularly u, occurs in the romanization of languages that do not use the Roman alphabet, such as Chinese. For example, Mandarin Chinese 女 [ny˨˩˦] ("female") is romanized as nu in Hanyu Pinyin. Tibetan pinyin uses a, o, u with approximately their German values.

The Cyrillic letters ӓ, ӧ, ӱ are used in Mari, Khanty, and other languages for approximately [ae], [o], and [y]. These directly parallel the German umlaut a, o, u. Other vowels using a double dot to modify their values in various minority languages of Russia are ӛ, ӫ, and ӹ.

Use of the umlaut for special effect[edit]

The umlaut diacritic can be used in "sensational spellings" or foreign branding, for example in advertising, or for other special effects. Motley Crue, Blue Oyster Cult, and Haagen-Dazs are examples of such usage.

Other uses[edit]

A double dot is also used as a diacritic in cases where it functions as neither a diaeresis nor an umlaut. In the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA), a double dot above a letter is used for a centralized vowel, a situation more similar to umlaut than to diaeresis. In other languages it is used for vowel length, nasalization, tone, and various other uses where diaeresis or umlaut was available typographically. The IPA uses a double dot below a letter to indicate breathy (murmured) voice.[18][g]

Vowels[edit] Consonants[edit]

Jacaltec (a Mayan language) and Malagasy are among the very few languages with a diaeresis on the letter "n"; in both, n̈ is the velar nasal [n].

In Udmurt, a double dot is also used with the consonant letters ӝ [dʒ] (from ж [ʒ]), ӟ [dʑ] (from з [z] ~ [ʑ]) and ӵ [tʃ] (from ч [tɕ]).

When distinction is important, Ḧ and ẍ are used for representing [h] and [ɣ] in the Kurdish Kurmanji alphabet (which are otherwise represented by "h" and "x"). These sounds are borrowed from Arabic.

Ẅ and y: Y is generally a vowel, but it is used as the (semi-vowel) consonant [ɰ] (a [w] without the use of the lips) in Tlingit. This sound is also found in Coast Tsimshian, where it is written ẅ.

A number of languages in Vanuatu use double dots on consonants, to represent linguolabial (or 'apicolabial') phonemes in their orthography. Thus Araki contrasts bilabial p [p] with linguolabial p̈ [t̼]; bilabial m [m] with linguolabial m̈ [n̼]; and bilabial v [β] with linguolabial v̈ [d̼].

Seneca uses ⟨s̈⟩ for [ʃ].

The letter ẗ is used in the ISO 233 transliteration of Arabic for taʾ marbuṭah ة.

Syriac uses a two dots above a letter, called Siyame, to indicate that the word should be understood as plural. For instance, ܒܝܬܐ (bayta) means 'house', while ܒܝ̈ܬܐ (bayte) means 'houses'. The sign is used especially when no vowel marks are present, which could differentiate between the two forms. Although the origin of the Siyame is different from that of the diaeresis sign, in modern computer systems both are represented by the same Unicode character. This, however, often leads to wrong rendering of the Syriac text.

Diacritic underneath[edit]

The IPA specifies a 'subscript umlaut', for example Hindi [kʊm̤ar] 'potter';[18] the ALA-LC romanization system provides for its use and is one of the main schemes to romanize Persian (for example, rendering ⟨ض⟩ as ⟨z̤⟩). The notation was used to write some Asian languages in Latin script, for example Red Karen.

Letters with diaeresis [edit] Computer usage[edit]

Character encoding generally treats the umlaut and the diaeresis as the same diacritic mark. A range of precomposed characters are encoded in Unicode; the combining diacritic technique is needed to produce others. Many operating systems have easier ways to enter characters most commonly used in that region but most modern systems support direct entry of the Unicode code point, irrespective of locality settings.

Keyboard input[edit]

If letters with double dots are not present on the keyboard (or if they are not recognized by the operating system), there are a number of ways to input them into a computer system.

Apple MacOS, iOS[edit]

iOS provides accented letters through press-and-hold on most European Latin-script keyboards, including English. Some keyboard layouts feature combining-accent keys that can add accents to any appropriate letter. A letter with double dots can be produced by pressing ⌥ Option+U, then the letter. This works on English and other keyboards and is documented further in the supplied manuals.[21]

Google Chrome OS[edit]

For Chrome OS with US-Extended keyboard setting, the combination is "+(letter).[22] For Chrome OS with UK-extended setting, use AltGr⇧ Shift2, release, then the letter.[citation needed] Alternatively, the Unicode codepoint may be entered directly, using Ctrl+⇧ Shift+u, release, then the four-digit code, then ↵ Enter or Space.[23]


In some Linux desktop environments a letter with double dots can be produced by pressing AltGr⇧ Shift:, then the letter.[citation needed] When the system has a compose key, the same procedure as that described at X-Windows (below) may be used.

Microsoft Windows[edit]

AZERTY and QZERTY keyboards (as used in much of Europe) include precomposed characters (accented letters) as standard and these are fully supported by Microsoft Windows, typically accessed using the AltGr key.

For users with a US keyboard layout, Windows includes a setting "US International", which supports creation of accented letters by changing the function of some keys into dead keys. If the user enters ", nothing will appear on screen, until the user types another character, after which the characters will be merged if possible, or added independently at once if not. Otherwise, the desired character may be generated using the Alt table above.

For users in the United Kingdom and Ireland with QWERTY keyboards, Windows has an 'Extended' setting such that an accented letter can be created using AltGr2 then the base letter.

When using Microsoft Word or Outlook, a letter with double dots can be produced by pressing Ctrl⇧ Shift: and then the letter.

On Microsoft Windows keyboard layouts that do not have double dotted characters, one may use Windows Alt keycodes. Double dots are then entered by pressing the left Alt key, and entering the full decimal value of the character's position in the Windows code page on the numeric keypad, provided that the compatible code page is used as a system code page. One can also use numbers from Code page 850; these are used without a leading 0.

X Window System[edit]

X-based systems with a Compose key set in the system can usually insert characters with double dots by typing Compose, quotedbl (i.e. ") followed by the letter. Compose+⇧ Shift, letter may also work, depending on the system's set-up. However, most modern UNIX-like systems also accept the sequence Compose+⇧ Shift+U to initiate the direct input of a Unicode value. Thus, typing Compose+⇧ Shift+U, 00F6, finishing with Space or ↵ Enter, will insert o into the document.

Dedicated keys[edit]

The German keyboard has dedicated keys for u o a. Scandinavian and Turkish keyboards have dedicated keys for their respective language-specific letters, including o for Swedish, Finnish, and Icelandic, and both o and u for Turkish. French and Belgian AZERTY keyboards have a dead key which adds a circumflex (if without Shift) or a diaeresis/umlaut (if with Shift) to the letter key immediately following (for instance Shift-^ followed by e gives e).

Other scripts[edit]

For non-Latin scripts, Greek and Russian use press-and-hold for double-dot diacritics on only a few characters. The Greek keyboard has dialytica and dialytica–tonos variants for upsilon and iota (ϋ ΰ ϊ ΐ), but not for ε ο α η ω, following modern monotonic usage. Russian keyboards feature separate keys for е and ё.

On-screen keyboards[edit]

The early 21st century has seen noticeable growth in stylus- and touch-operated interfaces, making the use of on-screen keyboards operated by pointing devices (mouse, stylus, or finger) more important. These "soft" keyboards may replicate the modifier keys found on hardware keyboards, but they may also employ other means of selecting options from a base key, such as right-click or press-and-hold. Soft keyboards may also have multiple contexts, such as letter, numeric, and symbol.

Character encodings[edit]

The ISO 8859-1 character encoding includes the letters a, e, i, o, u, and their respective capital forms, as well as y in lower case only, with Y added in the revised edition ISO 8859-15 and Windows-1252.

Unicode includes all of ISO-8859 and also provides the double dot as U+00A8 ¨ DIAERESIS and as U+0308 ◌̈ COMBINING DIAERESIS. In addition, there are codepoints for dozens of precomposed characters as shown above, mainly for compatibility with older character encodings.

Both the combining character U+0308 and the precomposed codepoints can be used as umlaut or diaeresis.

Sometimes, there's a need to distinguish between the umlaut sign and the diaeresis sign. ISO/IEC JTC 1/SC 2/WG 2 recommends the following for these cases:[24][better source needed]

Since version 3.2.0, Unicode also provides U+0364 ◌ͤ COMBINING LATIN SMALL LETTER E which can produce the older umlaut typography.

Unicode provides a combining double dot below as U+0324 ◌̤ COMBINING DIAERESIS BELOW.


In HTML, vowels with double dots can be entered with an entity reference of the form &?uml;, where ? can be any of a, e, i, o, u, y or their majuscule counterparts. With the exception of the uppercase Y, these characters are also available in all of the ISO 8859 character sets and thus have the same codepoints in ISO-8859-1 (-2, -3, -4, -9, -10, -13, -14, -15, -16) and Unicode. The uppercase Y is available in ISO 8859-15 and Unicode, and Unicode provides a number of other letters with double dots as well.

Note: when replacing umlaut characters with plain ASCII, use ae, oe, etc. for German language, and the simple character replacements for all other languages.

TeX and LaTeX[edit]

TeX (and its derivatives, most notably LaTeX) also allows double dots to be placed over letters. The standard way is to use the control sequence \" followed by the relevant letter, e.g. \"u. It is good practice to set the sequence off with curly braces: {\"u} or \"{u}.

TeX's "German" package can be used: it adds the " control sequence (without the backslash) to produce the Umlaut. However, this can cause conflicts if the main language of the document is not German. Since the integration of Unicode through the development of XeTeX and XeLaTeX, it is also possible to input the Unicode character directly into the document, using one of the recognized methods such as Compose key or direct Unicode input.

TeX's traditional control sequences can still be used and will produce the same output (in very early versions of TeX these sequences would produce double dots that were too far above the letter's body).

All these methods can be used with all available font variations (italic, bold etc.).

See also[edit] Notes[edit] References[edit] External links[edit]

image of White House releases plan to replace all of the nation's ...

White House releases plan to replace all of the nation's ...

Dec 16, 2021 · The Biden administration outlined a plan on Thursday to replace all of the nation's lead water pipes in the next decade. The multi-agency Lead Pipe and Paint Action Plan will use $15 billion from ...Some communities could actually see changes within months, EPA administrator Michael Regan told CBS News..
Keyword: Joe Biden, white house
From: www.cbsnews.com

The Biden administration outlined a plan on Thursday to replace all of the nation's lead water pipes in the next decade. The multi-agency Lead Pipe and Paint Action Plan will use $15 billion from the bipartisan infrastructure bill passed last month and could require additional funding down the line.

"The bottom line is that there is no reason in the 21st century for why people are still exposed to this substance that was poisoning people back in the 18th century. There is no reason," Vice President Kamala Harris said in a speech Thursday morning. "But here's the truth, and it's a hard truth: Millions of people in our country, many of them children, are still exposed to lead every day."

Up to 10 million households in the country are connected to water through lead service pipes and service lines, according to the White House. And 400,000 schools and child care facilities in the country are at risk of being exposed to lead in their water. Black people who are not of Hispanic descent are more than twice as likely to live in housing at higher risks for exposure to lead-based paints and approximately 24 million housing units have significant lead paint hazards.

The White House said it will "use every tool at its disposal" to "correct these wrongs" and will activate billions of dollars in funding, including investments from the Environmental Protection Agency and the bipartisan infrastructure law, to do so. The administration also clarified that state and local governments can use some of the money provided in the American Rescue Plan to replace lead pipes.

As part of the plan, the Biden administration will establish hubs to support local water agencies in developing lead service line inventories, release an updated strategy to reduce lead exposure from the EPA and award grants to state and local government agencies from the Department of Housing and Urban Development.

"These game-changing investments will put American plumbers and pipefitters to work replacing all of the America's lead pipes and service lines and making other critical upgrades," the White House said. 

EPA administrator Michael Regan said the agency will strengthen its existing drinking water standards to make sure more water districts replace lead pipes and prioritize replacing some of the country's oldest lead service pipes. He said communities could actually see changes within months. 

"We want to maximize these opportunities," Regan told CBS News' Ben Tracy. "So we recognize the sense of urgency. We understand that there is a structure in place to administer these funds that can sometimes be slow. But this administration is laser-focused on leveraging all of the resources as quickly as possible."

The EPA said it will spend $2.9 billion of the $15 billion it received from the bipartisan infrastructure bill to replace lead service lines in 2022. The rest of the money will be spent over the next five years. While he said the plan will require additional resources at some point, Regan said the current funding is "more than enough" to spend now. 

"We will meet the president's objective," he said. 

The American Water Works Association commended the new plan, calling it "an important step forward."

"The required development of lead service line inventories will help communities understand the scope of the challenge and accelerate lead service line replacement," the association said in a statement Thursday. "This is a tremendous and necessary undertaking, and many utilities are already advancing this goal and serve as excellent models for others."

According to the EPA, there is no known safe level of lead in drinking water because the toxic metal "can be harmful to human health even at low exposure levels." Ingesting water with lead can lead to behavioral issues, a lower IQ and slowed growth for children as well as increased blood pressure, hypertension, decreased kidney function and reproductive problems for adults.

In towns like Benton Harbor, Michigan — a predominantly Black and lower-income city which has experienced a high level of lead presence since at least 2018 — many residents have relied on bottled water for daily tasks like cooking, drinking, brushing teeth, rinsing foods and mixing powdered infant formula at the direction of health officials. 

Across the state in Flint, tens of thousands of residents will be financially compensated for having an elevated level of lead in their water for years. A federal judge last month approved one of the largest settlements in state history of $626.25 million for the impact of lead exposure.

"It's not only physically harming, but there's, you know, mental anguish with these parents and these children," Regan said. "These are very tough situations."

He said families throughout the country can have confidence that help is on the way with the newly unveiled plan. 

"We're going to come together in the government and get it done," Regan vowed. 

image of Jeeps gear for state trip - Portsmouth Daily Times

Jeeps gear for state trip - Portsmouth Daily Times

Nov 10, 2021 · Ed Litteral | Daily Times. SOUTH WEBSTER — When the Jeep train rolls out of their village on Thursday morning, the South Webster High School volleyball team is hoping to make its 254-mile round ...SOUTH WEBSTER — When the Jeep train rolls out of their village on Thursday morning, the South Webster High School volleyball team is hoping to make i.
From: www.portsmouth-dailytimes.com

SOUTH WEBSTER — When the Jeep train rolls out of their village on Thursday morning, the South Webster High School volleyball team is hoping to make its 254-mile round trip to Wright State University’s Nutter Center a three-day excursion.

After the Lady Jeeps’ three-set sweep of Newark Catholic in Saturday’s Division IV regional final — arguably the biggest win in program history — there was plenty of celebration at Bloom-Carroll High School.

The SW volleyball program successfully claimed their first regional title and became the third Scioto County team in four years to reach the OHSAA volleyball state tournament.

There have been high points along the way, but according to the Lady Jeeps’ senior captains, no win has been sweeter as part of their 25-1 campaign and impressive 22-game win streak.

“I think it’s the best feeling — I’ve never felt so much joy,” Rylee McGraw said, of winning the regional title. “Seeing my teammates faces and making history for the village, it’s amazing.”

“Coming back from the last few years almost making it to state, and last year we were close with Newark Catholic,” Bri Claxon said. “Having the opportunity to play them again and kind of get revenge, advance to state, it’s one of the best feelings ever.”

In their run to Thursday’s D-IV state semifinal, the Lady Jeeps have dropped just a single set — going 5-0 and outscoring their opponents 15-1 in sets played through their regional tournament run.

Their opponent in the second of two D-IV state semis, New Knoxville (25-2), owns a very similar record to South Webster and has dropped two sets in their postseason journey — one to top-ranked New Bremen in their district final and another to defending state champion Tiffin Calvert in their regional final.

Both teams feature members of the D-IV OHSVCA All-Ohio teams.

South Webster senior hitter Faith Maloney and New Knoxville setter Ellie Gabel and middle hitter Carsyn Henschen earned first team all-Ohio honors.

Another NK middle hitter — Avery Henschen — was named second-team all-Ohio, while South Webster senior libero Grace Claxon was Honorable Mention all-Ohio.

Both Claxon and Maloney spoke to what their team will need to do to knock off the second-ranked team in the week-five OHSVCA poll.

And, as both mentioned, with a 22-game winning streak and being ranked the No. 7 team in the OHSVCA poll, they too belong on the big stage.

“It’s about being consistent. They’re a disciplined team, and traditional,” Claxon said. “If we play our game and how we know to play, we should be fine.”

“Playing as a team,” Maloney said. “We all get along so well, staying together and keeping each other in check is what makes this team so close.”

South Webster and New Knoxville’s D-IV state semifinal will begin tentatively at 6 p.m. on Thursday at Wright State University’s Nutter Center, following the conclusion of the first state semi — between St. Henry (21-6) and Monroeville (23-4).

The D-IV state championship will be played between the winners of the two state semis — on Saturday, Nov. 13 with a tentative start of 1 p.m.

SW faces Rangers in state semi

Reach Jacob Smith at (740) 370-0713 ext. 1930, by email at [email protected], or on Twitter @JacobSmithPDT © 2021 Portsmouth Daily Times, all rights reserved

image of directory traversal - How to view php file in plaintext ...

directory traversal - How to view php file in plaintext ...

Aug 29, 2014 · I have downloaded php file of a website through path traversal technique, but when I opened the file with notepad and notepad++ I only get encrypted text. Is there any working way to view that file...I have downloaded php file of a website through path traversal technique, but when I opened the file with notepad and notepad++ I only get encrypted text. Is there any working way to view that file....
From: stackoverflow.com

I have downloaded php file of a website through path traversal technique, but when I opened the file with notepad and notepad++ I only get encrypted text. Is there any working way to view that file in plain text and understand what is there in that file, I am asking for a education purpose only. help me out

I get following text in that notepad file,

NOTE: I copied only few lines from that entire file

Keyboard shortcuts for international characters

ALT+CTRL+SHIFT+! ß. CTRL+SHIFT+&, s. The Unicode character for the specified Unicode (hexadecimal) character code. The character code, ALT+X. For example, to insert the euro currency symbol , press 20AC, and then hold down the ALT key and press X. The ANSI character for the specified ANSI (decimal) character code.Add international characters using keyboard shortcuts in your Outlook email..
From: support.microsoft.com

For keyboard shortcuts in which you press two or more keys simultaneously, the keys to press are separated by a plus sign (+) in Word Help. For keyboard shortcuts in which you press one key immediately followed by another key, the keys to press are separated by a comma (,).

To type a lowercase character by using a key combination that includes the SHIFT key, hold down the CTRL+SHIFT+symbol keys simultaneously, and then release them before you type the letter.

html codes for foreign language accents. keyboard help.

Tip 1: The long list of html codes below can also serve as a guide for the alt key code method: *for 256 or higher, press the alt key and type ONLY the three digit number (omit &# ;) *UNDER 256, press the alt key and type zero, then the number (omit &# ;) Tip 2: For unusual letters, and as a last resort, type just the accented letters or terms ....
From: www.starr.net

Latin Symbols : æ ô ÿ ä ᴲ - MadeInText.com

Click on any symbol to copy to the clipboard and paste it anywhere to use. The above Latin Symbols list contains almost all text symbols in the Unicode standard. You can easily copy and paste your favorite symbol character to write in Facebook, WhatsApp, Snapchat, Instagram, Discord, TikTok, or any desktop, web, and mobile application.Latin Symbols Copy and Paste Text Emoji Characters : Just click on any latin symbol to copy it to the clipboard and use anywhere you want..
From: www.madeintext.com


Published by the World Health Organization in 2002 under the title The World Health Report 2002, Reducing Risks, Promoting Healthy Life ©World Health Organization 2002 The Director-General of the World Health Organization has granted translation rights for an.
From: www.who.int

汉化 chinese translation - forums.unknownworlds.com

Nov 10, 2012 · å ¦å¤–æˆ‘æ‰“ç®—å ‘å®˜æ–¹æ è®®åŠ ä¸€ä¸ª ç¹ ä½“ä¸­æ–‡ çš„é¡¹ç›®è¿›åŽ»ï¼Œè¿™æ ·æ›´å ˆé€‚ä¸€äº›ã€‚ 0 Off Topic Disagree Agree Awesome.No formatter is installed for the format ipb.
From: forums.unknownworlds.com

What are French words with the letters ä, ë, ï, ö, ü, ÿ ...

Answer (1 of 5): Citroën is a famous one, with a story. Due to the spelling, it is pronounced see-tro-enn. However, the name goes back to a Dutch-speaker, and it was Citroen, without a trema, so it is spelled see-troon (and means ‘lemon’). Later, Mr. Citroen put the trema over the e to make it lo....
From: www.quora.com


as early as the 3rd millennium b.c.e.; as in Eng-lish, the Hebrew term comprises both substances. 4. blue, purple, and crimson yarns These were the most expensive dyed yarns in the ancient world. They were to be used for the tabernacle hangings and coverings and for the priestly vest-ments. blue In the Bible, the Hebrew word t’kheilet.
From: www.rabbinicalassembly.org

Home - Devi Mandir

excellent song (of the Cosmic Sound "oÄ".) Victory, Victory to you! Oh Slayer of the Great Ego, Oh One with beautiful braided hair, Oh Goddess of Inspiration (Daughter of the Mountains)..
From: www.shreemaa.org

NUTRITIOUS LIFE on Instagram: “How exactly do our …

Dec 16, 2021 · 91 Likes, 2 Comments - NUTRITIOUS LIFE (@nutritiouslifeofficial) on Instagram: “How exactly do our bodies make vitamin D?⁠⁠ ⁠⁠ {𝗟𝗶𝗻𝗸 𝗶𝗻 ....
From: www.instagram.com

Ç¥¿Ÿ ú™Ÿ —™Ë&ºÎ ¢é-–ÄéŸÀŸ Ä éË

ºa™–æa éé‹¿ºa ¨a¿a¥˚aÆa aºË-–™‹ ™™‰ ––¨Ÿ“Ÿ Who enjoys the bed of the Ultimate, whose conveyance is the Eagle who is the King of Birds, who is Unborn, Undefeatable, without Limitation, who cannot be defeated,.
From: www.shreemaa.org

WHO | World Health Organization

®—¥æ ‘¡æ å‚¥¬ß∫ª√–¡“≥°√¡°“√·æ∑¬ å °√–∑√«ß “∏“≥ ÿ¢ ª ï æ.». 2547. iii Contents A. Introduction 1 1. Background 3 2. Aims of ICF 5 3. Properties of ICF 7 4. Overview of ICF components 10 5. Model of Functioning and Disability 18.
From: apps.who.int

image of Gimlet Character Set | David Jonathan Ross

Gimlet Character Set | David Jonathan Ross

À Á Â Ã Ä Å Ā Ă Ą Ç Ć Ĉ Ċ Č Đ Ď È É Ê Ë Ē Ĕ Ė Ę Ě Ĝ Ğ Ġ Ģ Ĥ Ħ Ì Í Î Ï Ĩ Ī Ĭ Į İ Ĵ Ķ Ĺ Ļ Ľ Ŀ Ł Ñ Ń Ņ Ň Ŋ Ò Ó Ô Õ Ö Ø Ō Ŏ Ő Ŕ Ŗ Ř Ś Ŝ Ş Š Ș Ť Ț Ŧ Ù Ú Û Ü Ũ Ū Ŭ Ů Ű Ų Ŵ Ẁ Ẃ Ẅ Ý Ŷ Ÿ Ỳ Ź Ż Ž Ð Þ Æ Œ IJ. Lowercase. à á â ã ä å ā ă ą ç ć ĉ ...A funky quirkhorse for text and display..
From: djr.com

Help with Microsoft Keyboards US-International | School of ...

Microsoft English US-International Keyboard. Type International and Special Characters using the right key or the following modifier keys: Apostrophe(‘), Accent Grave(`), Quotation Mark(“), Tilde(~), and Circumflex(^).To type just the modifier key by itself, type the following the modifier key. Press and hold the right key then press the keys to ….
From: slcr.wsu.edu


Candidate can choose to answer in any one of the languag e. (i.e., either Hindi or English) There are TWO PARTS in this Module/Paper. PART ONE contains FOUR questions and PART TWO contains FIVE questions. PART ONE is Objective type and carries 40 Marks..
From: nielit.gov.in

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è¶…èƒ½ç„ŠæŽ¥è† è¶…å¼·é» æ€§å¯¦æ¸¬ …

你如果沒有露天拍賣帳號 請直接來電 0921104500 徐小姐 可以用郵局寄貨請在以下露天賣場下標https://www.ruten.com.tw/item/show?22044821386505https://www.ruten.com.tw/item/show?22042637360083https://w....
Keyword: Video, teilen, Kamerahandy, Videohandy, kostenlos, hochladen
From: www.youtube.com

Revelstoke Mountaineer on Instagram: “We’re checking out ...

Dec 11, 2021 · 210 Likes, 1 Comments - Revelstoke Mountaineer (@revelstoke_mountaineer) on Instagram: “We’re checking out the Big Eddy Winter Market at @bigeddyglassworks. The event features food,…”.
From: www.instagram.com


s ² Á Æ ý " J í Õ å s ² Ù ´ Æ Æ ? ÿ E ú 4 SC-703 SC-1303 SC-703 SC-1303 B A A A B A A C A B C. Pass the harness from the LAN CONV KIT through the saddle fitted at step 4, then connect the cables to their connectors (indicated as “A” and “B”). To avoid interference,.
From: www.furunousa.com

image of The Carbon Cycle - NASA

The Carbon Cycle - NASA

Carbon flows between the atmosphere, land, and ocean in a cycle that encompasses nearly all life and sets the thermostat for Earth's climate. By burning fossil fuels, people are changing the carbon cycle with far-reaching consequences.Carbon flows between the atmosphere, land, and ocean in a cycle that encompasses nearly all life and sets the thermostat for Earth's climate. By burning fossil fuels, people are changing the carbon cycle with far-reaching consequences..
From: earthobservatory.nasa.gov

Developing leaders | Grapevine Leaders

What the firm's CEO search tells us about finding good leaders. Following a year of high-profile executive resignations, many firms are now in the process of transitioning to new leadership... There are just days to go until the deadline, set years ago, for FTSE 100 firms to diversify their boardrooms... It’s been a difficult year for leaders ...Developing leaders.
Keyword: Business Insights, Business Leaders, Executive Search, Interim Management, Professional Recruitment
From: www.grapevineleaders.com

: Ÿ¡ - Inova

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From: www.inova.org


Jan 17 MLK Day Holiday. Jan 17, 2022 (all day) Feb 10 February Faculty Meeting. Feb 10, 2022, 9:30 AM – 10:20 AM Mar 07 Spring Break (March 7-11).
From: classic.cn.edu

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’Œ‹ÃÊ ‚ ÿ 2 ߸-¬ ¬⁄U www.pioneerhindi.comPioneer Haryana ¬ ¡ - vv º ‡Ê/Áflº ‡Ê 12 »§⁄U˺ʒʺ ãÿÍŸÃ 21.000C ÊÒ‚ 11.000C »§⁄U˺ʒʺ ˇÊ ....
From: www.dailypioneer.com

SMART ¢ , E & > 3 0 y ñ ¨ ä ¿ Ñ è ÿ

w SMART ¢ , E & > À ç @ Ú d ´ r y À x : S × ¢ , 3 0 y ñ ¨ ä ¿ Ñ è ÿ Â Ë ³ ç $ À ç Ý ÿ à î. 1.1 ¢ , E & > W ñ Ê y I W ý 3 y à d (LCO: Limiting Condition for Operation) ç $ r À ² y á û S ( þ 0 × F 7 > I S 5 t, ¢ , E & > ( Ò º D Þ a I î. ¢ , E & > 7 Ê ² û ï : t, W ý Ý Þ.
From: www.osti.gov

PERF - Department of Financial & Professional …

Ç È É Ê Ë Ì Í Î Ï Ð Ñ Ð Ò Ó Ô Õ Ö × Ø Ù Ú Û Ü Ò Ð Ñ Ð Ò Ý Þ Ñ Ð ß à ß á Ô â ã ä ã å æ ç è é ê ë ã ì í î ã é ï ð ñ ò ó ô õ ö ÷ ø ù å ã í ú ä ã ì ã ö û ì ã ë ü ã å ô å æ ê é ý ç í ï þ ö ì ñ è ë õ ú ø ü ã å ù ÿ û ã ö ä ÷ ä å ö ú å ø ....
From: www.idfpr.com

@sburgsticke%URtn | Twitter

From: twitter.com